How to take care a newborn?

Aysel Karaca Ünlü

A newborn baby may be discharged from the hospital when it is concluded that the mother can provide adequate care for her baby at home. After discharge, 3 drops of DVit should be used once daily for support. The baby should be taken to the ear, nose and throat outpatient clinic within one week after delivery for hearing tests. Even if everything is normal, the baby should be taken to the pediatric / neonatal outpatient clinic one week later at most and thyroid hormone values should be checked. The baby must reach birth weight on the 10th postnatal day (maximum 14th day). It should take an average of 500 gr per month. The baby should take an average of 160-200ml / kg formula or breast milk daily. (Breast milk should be taken as much as possible.) The vaccination card given from the hospital should be kept and the family physician should be consulted for follow-up of vaccines. To check for congenital hip dislocation, a pediatric / orthopedic outpatient clinic should be consulted for hip ultrasound at the end of the first month.

Conditions to be considered for newborns;

  • Especially in infants with blood group mismatch, jaundice should be monitored carefully, infants with increased jaundice in arms should be consulted to a doctor without waiting when there is a decrease in nursing and continuous drowsiness.
  • If the baby does not wake up for 6-8 hours, if there is a decrease in nursing and reluctance, if it is still above 38 degrees after uncovering and waiting for 15 minutes, the doctor should be consulted without waiting.
  • If the baby is vomiting in a squirting manner or if there is fluid defecation which extends up to the outside of the diapers, 3-4 times a day, the doctor should be consulted without waiting.
  • If the baby has a breathing rate of 60 or more when he is hungry and calm, or if there are symptoms such as breathing by opening and closing the nose wings indicating difficulty in breathing, a doctor should be consulted without waiting.
  • If the baby’s daily urine is reduced and urine is yellow and pungent, the doctor should be consulted without waiting.

How to tell if the milk is enough for the baby?

If the baby urinates in the diaper at least 5 times a day, reaches the birth weight at the end of the 14th day, sleeps comfortably after breastfeeding, if the mother’s breast is full 2 hours after breastfeeding, it is understood that the milk is enough for the baby.

How should newborn babies have eye care?

After washing the hands thoroughly with soapy water, a clean gauze / cheesecloth / cotton is soaked with pre-boiled warm water and after lightly squeezing, the eye should be wiped from the inside out. The same material should not be used for the other eye and cleaning should be started with a new cloth. Five times a day or ten times a day, inner corner of the eye can be massaged with light touches. If there are signs of redness or burring in the baby’s eyes, a doctor should be consulted.

How should ear care of newborn babies be done?

Hearing test should be carried out in all newborns. In ear care, after washing the hands thoroughly, clean the gauze with pre-boiled warm water and after squeezing it gently, start around the ear hole and clean it towards the ear folds. Never put any cloth or stick into the ear hole.

How should nasal care of newborn babies be done?

Nasal congestion in infants can seriously impair feeding and sleeping. Therefore, it should be done before feeding or sleep. The secretions in the baby’s nose should be softened with saline (nasal drops or spray) and then cleaned with a nasal aspirator that works with a pendant switch or mouth. This can be done 1-6 times, depending on the situation. However, attempting to open the non-congested nose may cause edema in the nose and make the nose congested vice versa.

How should oral care of newborn babies be done?

After wetting the clean gauze bandage with warm water, it should be wrapped in the pinky water and touched the baby’s lips after opening the mouth of the palate and cheek and the inside of the tongue should be softly stroked. 1-2 times a day is enough. If there are white spots on the tongue or cheeks of the baby, thrush should be seriously considered and treated.

How should the umbilical care of newborn babies be done?

The belly nutton usually dries and falls off within 6-10 days. If the belly stays moist, it softens and the fall time increases. Therefore, the belly should be dried immediately after the bath. The baby should be cleaned by wiping until the belly button falls off as far as possible. Care should be taken to keep the diaper under the belly by curling. By this way, the belly remains dry and does not touch the urine and stool. The belly should be wiped with 70% alcohol twice a day in the morning and evening. Dressing should be continued for 1-2 days after the belly button falls off. If you have a yellow pus that has signs of umbilical infection, a bad smelling or reddened and swollen belly, a doctor should be consulted. Redness may also be caused by dry umbilical cord irritation to the skin. To determine what caused the irritation, draw the diameter of the redness with a pencil by gently moving the dry umbilical cord away from the red area. Wait an hour and check again. If redness is still present and has spread beyond the mark, a doctor should be consulted. The redness will disappear after a short time only if the dry umbilical cord is irritated to the skin.

Sometimes there may be small amounts of bleeding through the belly button. This is normal due to the separation of blood vessels. If you notice bleeding, try applying some pressure first. If bleeding does not stop after five to seven minutes of continuous pressure, a doctor should be consulted.

After the umbilical cord has fallen off, there may be a reddish, moist swelling or nodule that may grow slightly and drain pus where the umbilical cord fell off which is called umbilical granuloma. This can be treated with a drug containing silver nitrate.

How to make a newborn baby bath?

The best time to take a bath;

Babies sleep more peacefully and comfortably after the bath. Bath should be done before feeding to prevent the baby from vomiting.

How often should the baby have a bath?

Washing 2 or 3 times a week is enough.

Newborn baby bath;

If the baby’s umbilical cord remains, it should be bathed with sponge. The baby is laid on a soft, flat surface, a basin full of warm water and a sponge is prepared. The baby’s skin is wiped in a non-irritating manner and eventually dried out slowly. If the umbilical cord accidentally gets wet, it should be dried gently with a soft towel.

The big bath;

Materials required: Soft fiber, baby shampoo, basin or bathtub, bathtub net, water thermometer, water at 33 degrees.

Application: The front part of the body, the back part of the neck and the last part of the body are washed sequentially. Since the most heat loss in infants is from the head part, the head washing process should be left to the end. Immediately after the bath, the baby is laid on a warm towel. It is dried to start from the head. After changing the wet towel underneath, diaper and clothes are dressed.

How should the newborn baby room and temperature be?

Room temperature is very important for the baby to sleep comfortably, not to sweat excessively and not to cause rash. The ideal temperature is between 21-24 degrees. The room should be ventilated frequently. Walls should be plain, covered with washable paint or wallpapers.

Medium-hard beds and light quilts with cotton should be preferred. The ideal sleeping position is on the back and side. Pillows should not be used before one year of age. Pillows and duvets should be washed every 6 weeks due to house mites. The baby’s bed should not have sharp angled small toys. The mother and baby must sleep in separate beds in the same room.

How to change a newborn diaper?

The diaper should be changed as soon as the baby wets or contaminates the diaper. If the diaper is not changed for a long time, it will cause rash and restlessness. Wet wipes containing alcohol should never be used.

If the baby is very dirty and has plenty of liquid poop, it is recommended to wash the baby with warm water from the waist down. No soap or shampoo should be used during this wash. Hard towels should not be used for drying.

Removing the dirty diaper

Adhesive tapes are opened and folded onto itself; but the dirty diapers are not yet taken from under the baby. The stool is wiped with a clean section of the diaper to be removed and the penis is covered with a cloth if the child is a boy. The baby is lifted slightly upwards by holding the ankles and the diaper is folded over itself. The dirty diaper is thrown into the bag. The bottom of the baby is wiped from front to back with an alcohol-free wet wipe or soaked cotton.

Clothing the new diaper

After applying a proven product for the prevention of rash and rash care, the top half of a clean diaper (half with adhesive tape) is placed behind the baby. The other half should be between the legs. The diaper should be tightened with adhesive tapes on both sides without leaving no marks on the skin. The diaper should never cover the baby’s umbilical cord.

How should be the nail care of the newborn?

For the first 1-2 months, babies’ nails are soft and usually tear off spontaneously and should not be cut for this reason. Gloves should be worn for the first 2 months to prevent the baby from scratching his face. After the 2nd month, nails can be cut with a blunt-tipped scissors, especially when the baby is calm or sleeping.

How should be the skin care of the newborn?

Babies’ skin is very delicate and very sensitive to chemicals. The ingredients of the baby care products to be used should be avoided with additives that may irritate the baby’s skin or cause allergic skin reactions. Clinically proven, breathable, unperfumed, nonadditive, preservative or antiseptic, reliable care products for infants should be selected. The baby’s diaper and underwear should be changed frequently. The room temperature should not exceed 24 degrees celsius, otherwise diaper rash and heat rash may occur. If heat-induced rash occurs, the baby should be bathed and left uncovered.

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